Onder constructie...


De statistische berekeningen worden gemaakt op basis van resultaten uit betrouwbare studies. De algoritmes extraheren deze gegevens uit de database en berekenen nakansen aan de hand van voorkansen en positieve en negatieve likelihoodratio's. De uitkomst is uiteraard telkens een statistische inschatting en onderhevig aan diverse onzekerheden.


1.Ebell MH et al. A systematic review of the history and physical examination to diagnose influenza. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2004 Jan-Feb;17(1):1-5.
2.Nader Shaikh et al. Signs and Symptoms that Differentiate Acute Sinusitis from Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Oct; 32(10): 1061–1065.
3.Mark H et al. Epstein-Barr Virus Infectious Mononucleosis. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Oct 1;70(7):1279-1287.
4.Aalbers J et al. Predicting streptococcal pharyngitis in adults in primary care: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs and validation of the Centor score. BMC Medicine20119:67
5.Claude Cyr et al. Do symptoms and initial clinical probability predict the radiological diagnosis of acute sinusitis in children? Paediatr Child Health. 2001 Oct; 6(8): 536–539.
6.ITS Yu et al. Using child reported respiratory symptoms to diagnose asthma in the community. Arch Dis Child 2004;89:544–548.
7.Tomita K et al. A scoring algorithm for predicting the presence of adult asthma: a prospective derivation study. Prim Care Respir J. 2013 Mar;22(1):51-8
8.Dewar M et al. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Diagnostic Considerations. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Feb 15;73(4):669-676
9.Rambaud-Althaus C et al. Waarde van symptomen en klinische tekens voor de diagnose van pneumonie bij kinderen. Minerva 2015 Volume 14 Nummer 6, 66 - 67
10.Amalakanti S et al. Pulse Oximetry Overestimates Oxygen Saturation in COPD. Respir Care 2016;61(4):423–427
11.Pachon EG et al. Can pulse oximetry select patients for screening spirometry? Primary Care Respiratory Journal (2004); 13 : 155 – 158
12.Moore M et al. Predictors of pneumonia in lower respiratory tract infections: 3C prospective cough complication cohort study. European Respiratory Journal 2017 50: 1700434
13.Holm A et al. Aetiology and prediction of pneumonia in lower respiratory tract infection in primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2007 Jul 1; 57(540): 547–554
14.Heckerling PS et al. Clinical prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates. Annals of Internal Medicine 1990 November 1, 113 (9): 664-70
15.Shah SN et al. Does This Child Have Pneumonia?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review. JAMA. 2017 Aug 1;318(5):462-471
16.Saldias PF et al. Predictive value of history and physical examination for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Rev Med Chil. 2007;135:143–150
17.Diehr P et al. Prediction of pneumonia in outpatients with acute cough–a statistical approach. J Chronic Dis. 1984;37:215–25
18.Melbye H et al. Diagnosis of pneumonia in adults in general practice. Relative importance of typical symptoms and abnormal chest signs evaluated against a radiographic reference stan- dard. Scand J Prim Health Care. 1992;10:226–33
19.Kern DG et al. Auscultated forced expiratory time as a clinical and epidemiologic test of airway obstruction. Chest. 1991;100:636–9
20.Gennis P et al. Clinical criteria for the detection of pneumonia in adults: guidelines for ordering chest roentgen- ograms in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 1989;7:263–8
21.Zanco J et al. Analysis of chest x-ray and clinical finding in children with pneumonia. Med. Sci., Vol. 17, No. (2), 2013 477-481
22.Moore P et al. Clinical predictors of chronic rhinosinusitis: do the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute and chronic rhinosinusitis predict CT-confirmation of disease? J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017; 46: 65
23.In patients of COVID-19, what are the symptoms and clinical features of mild and moderate cases? Michelen, M et al. School of Health Sciences, City, University of London
24.Laursen CB et al. Diagnostic performance of chest X-ray for the diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia in acute admitted patients with respiratory symptoms. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2013; 21(Suppl 2): A21
25.Ticinesi A et al. Lung ultrasound and chest x-ray for detecting pneumonia in an acute geriatric ward. Medicine: July 2016 - Volume 95 - Issue 27 - p e4153
26.Nazerian P et al. Accuracy of lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of consolidations when compared to chest computed tomography. Am J Emerg Med. 2015 May;33(5):620-5
27.Ianniello S et al. First-line diagnosis of paediatric pneumonia in emergency: lung ultrasound (LUS) in addition to chest-X-ray (CXR) and its role in follow-up. The British Journal of Radiology 2016 89:1061
28.Bourcier JE et al. Performance comparison of lung ultrasound and chest x-ray for the diagnosis of pneumonia in the ED. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 32 (2014) 115–118
29.Xia Y et al. Effectiveness of lung ultrasonography for diagnosis of pneumonia in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal Of Thoracic Disease, 8(10), 2822-2831
30.Koster MJ et al. Diagnostic properties of C-reactive protein for detecting pneumonia in children. Respiratory Medicine Volume 107, Issue 7, July 2013, 1087-1093
31.Le Bel J. Diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in suspected community-acquired pneumonia adults visiting emergency department and having a systematic thoracic CT scan. Crit Care. 2015; 19: 366
32.Interpreting a covid-19 test result, Jessica Watson et al., BMJ 2020;369:m1808
33.Worrall G et al. Acute sinusitis. Can Fam Physician. 2011 May; 57(5): 565–567
34.To T et al. Global asthma prevalence in adults: findings from the cross-sectional world health survey. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12: 204
35.Snoeck-Stroband JB et al. NHG Standaard COPD. Huisarts Wet 2015;58(4):198-211
36.NICE clinical guideline: Pneumonia scope (September 2012)
37.Pneumonia among Children in Developing Countries: DBMD


1.Rudi Bruyninckx et al. Signs and symptoms in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome: a diagnostic meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract 2008; 58 (547): e1-e8.
2.Goodacre S et al. Meta-analysis: the value of clinical assessment in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:129-39
3.Khan NA et al. Does the clinical examination predict lower extremity peripheral arterial disease? JAMA 2006 February 1, 295 (5): 536-46
4.Iversen K et al. Effect of teaching and type of stethoscope on cardiac auscultatory performance. Am Heart J 2006;152:85.e1285.e7
5.Parras J et al. Diagnostic ability of Physical Examination in aortic Valve stenosis. Rev Argent Cardiol 2015;83:204-209
6.Choudhry NK et al. Does This Patient Have Aortic Regurgitation? JAMA. 1999;281:2231-2238
7.Wang CS et al. Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? JAMA. 2005 Oct 19;294(15):1944-56
8.Lederle FA et al. The rational clinical examination. Does this patient have abdominal aortic aneurysm? JAMA. 1999 Jan 6;281(1):77-82
9.Morgan S et al. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of left ventricular dysfunction among elderly patients in general practice setting: cross sectional survey. BMJ. 1999 Feb 6; 318(7180): 368–372
10.Goodacre S et al. How Useful Are Clinical Features in the Diagnosis of Acute, Undifferentiated Chest Pain? Academic emergency medicine 2002; 9:203–208
11.Mant J et al. Systematic review and modelling of the investigation of acute and chronic chest pain presenting in primary care. Health Technology Assessment Volume: 8, Issue: 2, Published in February 2004
12.Shamsham S et al. Essentials of the Diagnosis of Heart Failure. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Mar 1;61(5):1319-1328
13.Hobbs FD et al. A randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study of systematic screening (targeted and total population screening) versus routine practice for the detection of atrial fibrillation in people aged 65 and over. The SAFE study Health Technol. Assess., 9 (iii-iv, ix-x) (2005), pp. 1-74
14.Zimmerman J et al. Diagnostic marker cooperative study for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1999 Apr 6;99(13):1671-7
15.Fanaroff AC et al. Does This Patient With Chest Pain Have Acute Coronary Syndrome?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review. JAMA. 2015 Nov 10;314(18):1955-65
16.Carmo GA et al. Can we measure the ankle-brachial index using only a stethoscope? A pilot study. Fam Pract 2009;26:22-6
17.Li XM et al. The diagnostic value of 64-multislice CT in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive diseases: comparison with digital subtraction angiography. J Interv Radiol. 2007;16(6):371-374
18.Maisel AS et al. Rapid Measurement of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in the Emergency Diagnosis of Heart Failure. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:161-167
19.Kennedy S et al. Ability of physicians to diagnose congestive heart failure based on chest X-ray. J Emerg Med. 2011 Jan;40(1):47-52
20.Taylor C et al. Diagnosing Heart Failure – Experience and ‘Best Pathways’. European Cardiology - Volume 6 Issue 3;2010:6(3):10-12
21.J. Mant, D.A. Fitzmaurice, F.D. Hobbs, S. Jowett, E.T. Murray, R. Holder, et al. Accuracy of diagnosing atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram by primary care practitioners and interpretative diagnostic software: analysis of data from screening for atrial fibrillation in the elderly (SAFE) trial BMJ, 335 (2007), p. 380
22.Wells PS et al. Value of assessment of pretest probability of deep-vein thrombosis in clinical management. Lancet 1997 Dec 20-27 350(9094):1795-8
23.Kalbaugh CA et al. Peripheral Artery Disease Prevalence and Incidence Estimated From Both Outpatient and Inpatient Settings Among Medicare Fee‐for‐Service Beneficiaries in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2017;6:e003796
24.Cervellin G et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of acute abdominal pain in a large urban Emergency Department: retrospective analysis of 5,340 cases. Ann Transl Med. 2016 Oct; 4(19): 362
25.Faggiano P et al. Epidemiology and cardiovascular risk factors of aortic stenosis. Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2006; 4: 27
26.Seldon WA et al. The incidence of atrial septal defect in adults. Br Heart J. 1962 Sep; 24(5): 557–560
27.Delling FN et al. Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Mitral Valve Prolapse: New Insights into Disease Progression, Genetics, and Molecular Basis. Circulation. 2014 May 27; 129(21): 2158–2170
28.Maurer G. Aortic regurgitation. Heart. 2006 Jul; 92(7): 994–1000
29.Danielsen R et al. Prevalence of heart failure in the elderly and future projections: the AGES-Reykjavík study. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2017 Aug;51(4):183-189
30.Go AS et al. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study. JAMA. 2001 May 9;285(18):2370-5
31.Murphy NF et al. A national survey of the prevalence, incidence, primary care burden and treatment of atrial fibrillation in Scotland. Heart. 2007 May;93(5):606-12. Epub 2007 Feb 3


1.David G. Bundy et al. Does This Child Have Appendicitis? JAMA. 2007 Jul 25; 298(4): 438–451.
2.Trowbridge RL et al. Does This Patient Have Acute Cholecystitis? JAMA, January 1, 2003—Vol 289, No. 1 80-86
3.Bohner H et al. Simple data from history and physical examination help to exclude bowel obstruction and to avoid radiographic studies in patients with acute abdominal pain. Eur J Surg. 1998 Oct;164(10):777-84
4.Wilkins T et al. Diagnosis and Management of Acute Diverticulitis. Am Fam Physician. 2013 May 1;87(9):612-620
5.Abraham S et al. Surgical and Nonsurgical Management of Gallstones. Am Fam Physician. 2014 May 15;89(10):795-802
6.Wagner JM et al. Does This Patient Have Appendicitis? JAMA. 1996;276(19):1589-1594
7.Hardin M et al. Acute Appendicitis: Review and Update. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Nov 1;60(7):2027-2034
8.Nshuti R et al. Clinical presentation of acute appendicitis in adults at the Chris Hani Baragwanath academic hospital. Int J Emerg Med. 2014; 7: 12
9.Lamture YR et al. The role of rebound tenderness in acute appendicitis and appendicular perforation. Int Surg J. 2017 Feb;4(2):725-727
10.Idris SA et al. The sensitivity and specificity of the conventional symptoms and signs in making adiagnosis of acute appendicitis. Sudan journal of medical sciences. 4. 55-61
11.Hwang H et al. Does ultrasonography accurately diagnose acute cholecystitis? Improving diagnostic accuracy based on a review at a regional hospital. Can J Surg. 2014 Jun; 57(3): 162–168
12.Al-gaithy Zuhoor K et al. Clinical value of total white blood cells and neutrophil counts in patients with suspected appendicitis: retrospective study. World Journal of Emergency Surgery : WJES. 2012;7:32
13.Al-Ajerami Y et al. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. East Mediterr Health J. 2012 Jan;18(1):66-9
14.Al-Khayal KA et al. Computed tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of equivocal acute appendicitis. A meta-analysis. Saudi Med J. 2007 Feb;28(2):173-80
15.Toorenvliet BR et al. Routine ultrasound and limited computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. World J Surg 34(10):2278, October 2010
16.Neufeld D et al. Management of acute appendicitis: an imaging strategy in children. Ped Surg Internat 26(2):167, February 2010
17.Doria AS et al. US or CT for diagnosis of appendicitis in children and adults? A meta-analysis. Radiology 241(1):83, October 2006
18.Kiewiet JJS et al. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Performance of Imaging in Acute Cholecystitis. Radiology September 2012 Volume 264, Issue 3
19.Klugsberger B et al. Clinical Value of Sonography and CT-Scan in the Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis: A Retrospective Analysis. Ann Emerg Surg 2(3): 1021 (2017)
20.Kumar K et al. To study the sensitivity and specificity of Ultrasonography for diagnosing cholelithiasis in a tertiary care teaching hospital Int J Med Res Prof.2015;1(3); 64-67
21.Shea JA et al. Revised estimates of diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity in suspected biliary tract disease. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154(22):2573–2581
22.Saaiq M et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Leukocytosis in Prediction of Acute Appendicitis. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 2014, Vol. 24 (1): 67-69
23.Dahmardehei M et al. Diagnostic Value of Leukocytosis, ESR and CRP in Patients with Suspected Acute Appendicitis. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 2013 Jul; 15(7): 59-63
24.Kamran H et al. Role of total leukocyte count in diagnosis of acute appendicitis. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2008;20(3)
25.Chou YH et al. Sonography of acute right side colonic diverticulitis. Am J Surg. 2001 Feb;181(2):122-7
26.Ripolles T et al. The role of ultrasound in the diagnosis, management and evolutive prognosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis: a review of 208 patients. Eur Radiol 2003; 13:2587–2595
27.Parente F et al. Role of early ultrasound in detecting inflammatory intestinal disorders and identifying their anatomical location within the bowel. Ailment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 18:1009–1016
28.Hollerweger A et al. Colonic diverticulitis: diagnostic value and appearance of inflamed diverticula—sonographic evaluation. Eur Radiol 2001; 11:1956–1963
29.Kola S et al. Role of Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of the gallstones. Radiology 2013;4(10)
30.Sarma D et al. Diagnostic imaging for diverticulitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;42(10):1139–1141
31.O'Connor ES et al. Outpatient Diverticulitis: Mild or Myth? J Gastrointest Surg. 2012 Jul; 16(7): 1389–1396
32.Stefánsson R et al. Diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. Acta Radiologica (1997) 38:2, 313-319
33.Hastings RS et al. Abdominal pain in the ED: a 35 year retrospective. Am J Emerg Med. 2011 Sep;29(7):711-6
34.Cervellin G et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of acute abdominal pain in a large urban Emergency Department: retrospective analysis of 5,340 cases. Ann Transl Med. 2016 Oct; 4(19): 362
35.Caporale N et al. Acute abdominal pain in the emergency department of a university hospital in Italy. United European Gastroenterology Journal 2016, Vol. 4(2) 297–304


1.Christopher A et al. Does This Patient Have Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? JAMA. 2000;283(23):3110-3117
2.Sutlive TG et al. Development of a clinical prediction rule for diagnosing hip osteoarthritis in individuals with unilateral hip pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2008; 38(9): 542-550
3.Rinonapoli G et al. The clinical diagnosis of meniscal tear is not easy. Reliability of two clinical meniscal tests and magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2011 Jan-Mar;24(1 Suppl 2):39-44
4.Corea JR et al. McMurray's test tested. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1994;2(2):70-2
5.Evans PJ et al. Prospective evaluation of the McMurray test. Am J Sports Med. 1993 Jul-Aug;21(4):604-8
6.Fowler PJ et al. The predictive value of five clinical signs in the evaluation of meniscal pathology. Arthroscopy 1989;5:184-6
7.Kurosaka M et al. Efficacy of the axially loaded pivot shift test for the diagnosis of a meniscal tear. Int Orthop 1999;23:271-4
8.Rubinstein RA et al. The accuracy of the clinical examination in the setting of posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Am J Sports Med 1994; 22:550-7
9.Katz JW et al. The diagnostic accuracy of ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament comparing the Lachman test, the ante- rior drawer sign, and the pivot shift test in acute and chronic knee injuries. Am J Sports Med 1986;14:88-91
10.Benjaminse A et al. Clinical Diagnosis of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: A Meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Volume 36 Number 5 May 2006, 267-288
11.Kastelein M et al. Assessing Medial Collateral Ligament Knee Lesions in General Practice. The American Journal of Medicine, Vol 121, No 11, November 2008
12.Goubau JF et al. The wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb (WHAT) test: a more specific and sensitive test to diagnose de Quervain tenosynovitis than the Eichhoff’s Test. The Journal of Hand Surgery (European Volume) 2014, Vol. 39E(3) 286 –292
13.Beekman R et al. The diagnostic value of provocative clinical tests in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is marginal. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009 Dec;80(12):1369-74
14.Novak CB et al. Provocative testing for cubital tunnel syndrome. J Hand Surg (AM) 1994 September; 19(5):817-20
15.Majlesi J et al. The Sensitivity and Specificity of the Slump and the Straight Leg Raising Tests in Patients With Lumbar Disc Herniation. Journal of clinical rheumatology: practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases 14(2):87-91 · May 2008
16.Ekedahl H et al. Accuracy of Clinical Tests in Detecting Disk Herniation and Nerve Root Compression in Subjects With Lumbar Radicular Symptoms. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Volume 99, Issue 4, April 2018, Pages 726-735
17.Omar S et al. Accuracy of straight leg raise test in patients with lumbar disc Herniation keeping magnetic resonance imaging as a reference Standard. Pak Armed Forces Med J 2016; 66(1):53-56
18.David S at al. Acute Lumbar Disk Pain: Navigating Evaluation and Treatment Choices. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Oct 1;78(7):835-842
19.Cecin AH Cecin's Sign: improving the diagnosis of radicular compression by herniated lumbar disks. Rev. Bras. Reumatol. vol.50 no.1 São Paulo Jan./Feb. 2010
20.Ferrari S et al. A literature review of clinical tests for lumbar instability in low back pain: validity and applicability in clinical practice. Chiropr Man Therap. 2015; 23: 14
21.Ebell MH et al. A literature review of clinical tests for lumbar instability in low back pain: validity and applicability in clinical practice. Chiropr Man Therap. 2015; 23: 14
22.Shelbourne KD et al. Correlation of joint line tenderness and meniscal lesions in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament tears. Am J Sports Med 1995; 23: 166–9
23.Youdas JW et al. Usefulness of the Trendelenburg test for identification of patients with hip joint osteoarthritis, Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 26:3, 184-194 (2010)
24.Deville WL et al. The test of Lasègue: systematic review of the accuracy in diagnosing herniated discs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000 May 1;25(9):1140-7
25.Suri P et al. Does this older adult with lower extremity pain have the clinical syndrome of lumbar spinal stenosis? JAMA. 2010 Dec 15;304(23):2628-36
26.Hermans J et al. Does this patient with shoulder pain have rotator cuff disease?: The Rational Clinical Examination systematic review. JAMA. 2013 Aug 28;310(8):837-47
27.Kuhlman K et al. Sensitivity and specificity of carpal tunnel syndrome signs. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 76(6):451-457, nov 1997
28.Arnett FC et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988;31:315-24.
29.Penning L et al. Empty can and drop arm tests for cuff rupture: Improved specificity after subacromial injection. Acta Orthop. Belg., 2016, 82, 166-173
30.Çalış M et al. Diagnostic values of clinical diagnostic tests in subacromial impingement syndrome Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2000;59:44-47
31.Alqunaee M et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Tests for Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 93, February 2012, 229 - 236
32.Michener LA et al. Reliability and Diagnostic Accuracy of 5 Physical Examination Tests and Combination of Tests for Subacromial Impingement. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 90, November 2009, 1898 - 1903
33.Fowler JR et al. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Meta-analysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011 Apr; 469(4): 1089–1094
34.Atroshi I et al. Diagnostic properties of nerve conduction tests in population-based carpal tunnel syndrome. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2003; 4: 9
35.Lee KH et al. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the first extensor compartment of the wrist in de Quervain’s disease. Journal of Orthopaedic Science Volume 19, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 49-54
36.Xu L et al. Frequency of MRI-Detected Hip Osteoarthritis Features in Persons with Chronic Hip Pain and the Diagnostic Performance of Radiography Using MRI As the Reference. Skeletal Radiol. 2013 Oct;42(10):1421-8
37.Oei EH et al. Diagnostic Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee Differs According to Lesion. Radiology. 2003 Mar 226:837-48
38.Chawalparit O et al. The limited protocol MRI in diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Feb;89(2):182-9
39.Rijn RM et al. Computed tomography for the diagnosis of lumbar spinal pathology in adult patients with low back pain or sciatica: a diagnostic systematic review. European Spine Journal February 2012, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 228–239
40.Zlatkin MB et al. Rotator cuff tears: diagnostic performance of MR imaging. Radiology. 1989 Jul;172(1):223-9
41.Patten RM et al. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears using supplemental images in the oblique sagittal plane. Invest Radiol. 1994 Jan;29(1):87-93
42.Wnorowski DC et al. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of the rotator cuff: Is it really accurate? Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery Volume 13, Issue 6, December 1997, Pages 710-719
43.Nishimura K et al. Meta-analysis: diagnostic accuracy of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody and rheumatoid factor for rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Jun 5;146(11):797-808
44.Rindfleisch JA et al. Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Sep 15;72(6):1037-1047
45.Payet J et al. Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies in Rheumatoid and Nonrheumatoid Rheumatic Disorders: Experience with 1162 Patients. The Journal of Rheumatology 41(12) · October 2014
46.Miller A et al. Estimating the diagnostic accuracy of rheumatoid factor in UK primary care: a study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Rheumatology, Volume 54, Issue 10, 1 October 2015, Pages 1882–1889
47.Dale AM et al. Prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in US working populations: pooled analysis of six prospective studies. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2013 Sep 1; 39(5): 495–505
48.Atroshi I et al. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population. JAMA. 1999;282(2):153–158
49.Peat G et al. Population-wide incidence estimates for soft tissue knee injuries presenting to healthcare in southern Sweden: data from the Skåne Healthcare Register. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014; 16(4): R162
50.Majewsk M et al. Epidemiology of athletic knee injuries: A 10-year study. The Knee Volume 13, Issue 3, June 2006, Pages 184-188
51.Gianotti S et al. Incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury and other knee ligament injuries: A national population-based study. JSAMS November 2009 Volume 12, Issue 6, Pages 622–627
52.Adachi S et al. Prevalence of de Quervain's Disease in the General Population and Risk Factors. The Kitakanto Medical Journal. 2011. 61. 479-482.
53.Khedr et al. Prevalence of Common Types of Compression Neuropathies in Qena Governorate/Egypt: A Population-Based Survey. Neuroepidemiology 2016;46:253-260
54.Brinjikji W et al. MRI Findings of Disc Degeneration are More Prevalent in Adults with Low Back Pain than in Asymptomatic Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015 Dec;36(12):2394-9
55.Quintana JM et al. Prevalence of knee and hip osteoarthritis and the appropriateness of joint replacement in an older population. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jul 28;168(14):1576-84
56.Schroeder GD et al. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: How Is It Classified? J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2016 Dec;24(12):843-852
57.Carmona L et al. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the general population of Spain. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002 Jan;41(1):88-95
58.Riise T et al. Incidence and prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the county of Troms, northern Norway. J Rheumatol. 2000 Jun;27(6):1386-9
59.Cimmino M et al. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Italy: the Chiavari study. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998 May; 57(5): 315–318
60.Minagawa H et al. Prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic rotator cuff tears in the general population: From mass-screening in one village. J Orthop. 2013 Mar; 10(1): 8–12


1.Sheldon R et al. Historical criteria that distinguish syncope from seizures. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 3 July 2002, 142-148
2.Rao G et al. Does this patient have Parkinson disease? JAMA. 2003 Jan 15;289(3):347-53
3.Smetana GW et al. The Diagnostic Value of Historical Features in Primary Headache SyndromesA Comprehensive Review. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(18):2729-2737
4.Thomas KE et al. The diagnostic accuracy of Kernig's sign, Brudzinski's sign, and nuchal rigidity in adults with suspected meningitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 35, Issue 1, 1 July 2002, Pages 46–52
5.Ala A et al. Accuracy of Neck stiffness, Kernig, Brudzinski, and Jolt Accentuation of Headache Signs in Early Detection of Meningitis. Emerg (Tehran). 2018; 6(1): e8
6.Mofidi M et al. Jolt accentuation and its value as a sign in diagnosis of meningitis in patients with fever and headache. Turk J Emerg Med. 2017 Mar; 17(1): 29–31
7.Uluduz D et al. Cranial autonomic features in migraine and migrainous features in cluster headache. Arch Neuropsychiatr 2016; 53
8.Pacheva IH et al. Diagnostic value of combinations of symptoms of migraine and tension-type headache included in the diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents in the international classification of headache disorders 2nd edition. Folia Medica 2013; 55(3&4): 46-55
9.Sung VW et al. Sensitivity and Specificity of Stroke Symptom Questions to Detect Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. Neuroepidemiology. 2011 Apr; 36(2): 100–104
10.Purrucker JC et al. Comparison of stroke recognition and stroke severity scores for stroke detection in a single cohort. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015 Sep;86(9):1021-8
11.Whiteley WN et al. Clinical scores for the identification of stroke and transient ischaemic attack in the emergency department: a cross-sectional study Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Published Online First: 14 March 2011
12.Berglund A et al. Face Arm Speech Time Test Use in the Prehospital Setting, Better in the Ambulance than in the Emergency Medical Communication Center. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014 Feb 26;37(3):212-216
13.Nor AM et al. The Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room (ROSIER) scale: development and validation of a stroke recognition instrument. Lancet Neurology. 2005;4(11):727–734
14.London: Royal College of Physicians (UK); 2008. Stroke: National Clinical Guideline for Diagnosis and Initial Management of Acute Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack
15.Kirby M et al. The clock drawing test in primary care: sensitivity in dementia detection and specificity against normal and depressed elderly. Geriatric Psychiatry Volume16, Issue10 October 2001 Pages 935-940
16.Simmons BB et al. Evaluation of Suspected Dementia. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Oct 15;84(8):895-902
17.Mitchell AJ et al. A meta-analysis of the accuracy of the mini-mental state examination in the detection of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. J Psychiatr Res. 2009 Jan;43(4):411-31
18.Eefsting JA et al. Bruikbaarheid van de 'Mini-mental state examination' voor het vaststellen van dementie; onderzoek naar de criteriumvaliditeit in een Nederlandse plattelandspopulatie. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1997;141:2066-70
19.Hamilton W et al. Clinical features of primary brain tumours: a case–control study using electronic primary care records. Br J Gen Pract. 2007 Sep 1; 57(542): 695–699
20.Chowdhury AH et al. Sensitivity and Specificity of Electroencephalography (EEG) Among Patients Referred to an Electrophysiology Lab in Bangladesh. J Dhaka Med Coll. 2014; 23(2) : 215-222
21.Dantas GF et al. EEG in epilepsy: Sensibility and Specificity. J Epilepsy Clin Neurophysiol 2014; 20 (2): 116-118
22.Gaenslen A et al. The specificity and sensitivity of transcranial ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: a prospective blinded study. Lancet Volume 7, No. 5, p417–424, May 2008
23.Bouwmans AE et al. Specificity and sensitivity of transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: prospective cohort study in 196 patients. BMJ Open. 2013 Apr 2;3(4)
24.Li DH et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Transcranial Sonography of the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson’s disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Scientific Reports volume 6, Article number: 20863 (2016)
25.Tysnes OB et al. Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017 Aug;124(8):901-905
26.Pringsheim T et al. The prevalence of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Mov Disord. 2014; 29: 1583–1590
27.Sedlic M et al. Epidemiology of Primary Headaches Among 1,876 Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Pain Medicine 2016; 17: 353–359
28.Kim BK et al. Prevalence and Impact of Migraine and Tension-Type Headache in Korea. J Clin Neurol. 2012 Sep; 8(3): 204–211
29.Stovner LJ et al. Prevalence of headache in Europe: a review for the Eurolight project. J Headache Pain (2010) 11:289–299
30.Robles P et al. The worldwide incidence and prevalence of primary brain tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuro Oncol. 2015 Jun; 17(6): 776–783


1.Carle A et al. Hypothyroid symptoms and the likelihood of overt thyroid failure: a population-based case–control study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Nov;171(5):593-602
2.Peterson S et al. Classification of thyroid size by palpation and ultrasonography in field surveys. Lancet. 2000 Jan 8;355(9198):106-10
3.Nugent CA et al. Probability theory in the diagnosis of cushing's syndrome. J clin endocrinol metab. 1964 jul;24:621-7
4.Zulewski H et al. Estimation of Tissue Hypothyroidism by a New Clinical Score: Evaluation of Patients with Various Grades of Hypothyroidism and Controls. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 82. 771-6
5.Abu-Helalah M et al. A randomized double-blind crossover trial to investigate the efficacy of screening for adult hypothyroidism. Journal of Medical Screening 2010; 17(4):164-69
6.Madariaga AG et al. The Incidence and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in Europe: A Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 99, Issue 3, 1 March 2014, Pages 923–931


1.Mark Ebell et al. Clinical Diagnosis of Melanoma. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Nov 15;78(10):1205-1208
2.Thomas L et al. Semiological value of ABCDE criteria in the diagnosis of cutaneous pigmented tumors. Dermatology. 1998;197(1):11-7
3.Sharma L et al. Diagnostic clinical features of atopic dermatitis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2001;67:25-7
4.Wanitphakdeedecha R et al. Diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis in adult Thai population. Indian J Dermatol 2007;52:83-8
5.Hensin Tsao et al. The Transformation Rate of Moles (Melanocytic Nevi) Into Cutaneous MelanomaA Population-Based Estimate. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139(3):282-288
6.Nutten S et al. Atopic dermatitis: global epidemiology and risk factors. Ann Nutr Metab. 2015;66 Suppl 1:8-16


1.Sandi Pirozzo et al. Acute otitis media. West J Med. 2001 Dec; 175(6): 402–407
2.R Rothman et al. Does this child have acute otitis media? JAMA. 2003 Sep 24;290(12):1633-40
3.Wood JM et al. Acute otitis media in young children Diagnosis and management. Medicine Today 2014; 15(7): 12-2
4.Pei-JuTing et al. Epidemiology of acute otitis media among young children: A multiple database study in Taiwan. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection Volume 45, Issue 6, December 2012, Pages 453-458


1.Driel MF et al. Fysische diagnostiek - Rectaal toucher. NtvG 18-03-2002
2.Giesen LGM et al. Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs. BMC Family Practice 2010 11:78
3.Bent S et al. Does this woman have an acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection? JAMA 2002 May 22, 287 (20): 2701-10
4.Mistry K et al. Meta-Analysis of Prostate-Specific Antigen and Digital Rectal Examination as Screening Tests for Prostate Carcinoma. J Am Board Fam Med March 1, 2003 vol. 16 no. 2 95-101
5.Laosu-angkoon S et al. The sensitivity and specificity of a urine leukocyte esterase dipstick test for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the outpatient clinic of Rajavithi Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2013 Jul;96(7):849-53
6.Daghistani HA et al. Diagnostic Value of Various Urine Tests in the Jordanian Population with Urinary Tract Infection. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 40(10):1048-51 · November 2002
7.Little P et al. Developing clinical rules to predict urinary tract infection in primary care settings: sensitivity and specificity of near patient tests (dipsticks) and clinical scores. Br J Gen Pract. 2006 Aug;56(529):606-12
8.Adhyam M et al. A Review on the Clinical Utility of PSA in Cancer Prostate. Indian J Surg Oncol. 2012 Jun; 3(2): 120–129
9.Ankerst DP et al. Sensitivity and specificity of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer detection with high rates of biopsy verification. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2006 Dec;78(4):125-9
10.Yunusa B et al. Determination of the sensitivity and specificity of serum prostate-specific antigen in the diagnosis of prostrate cancer in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Niger J Basic Clin Sci 2017;14:88-91
11.Blanker MH et al. Prevalentie van prostaatkanker gelijk bij mannen van 50 jaar of ouder met en zonder mictieklachten. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003;147:973-8

Voortplanting en gynaecologie

1.Anderson MR et al. The rational clinical examination: evaluation of vaginal complaints JAMA. 2004;291:1368-1379
2.Berntsson M et al. Clinical and Microscopic Signs of Cervicitis and Urethritis: Correlation with Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Female STI Patients. Acta Derm Venereol 2013; 93: 230–233
3.Rathod SD et al. Epidemiologic Features of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among Reproductive-Age Women in India. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 2012: 859071
4.Denning DW et al. Global prevalence of recurrent and chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis. Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections, Geneva. 2012
5.Newman L et al. Global Estimates of the Prevalence and Incidence of Four Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections in 2012 Based on Systematic Review and Global Reporting. PLoS One. 2015; 10(12)


1.Kim H et al. Validating childhood symptoms with physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 108 (2012) 228 –231
2.Salkind AR et al. Is This Patient Allergic to Penicillin? An Evidence-Based Analysis of the Likelihood of Penicillin Allergy. JAMA, May 16, 2001—Vol 285, No. 19. 2498 - 2505
3.Sodhi M et al. Is it safe to use carbapenems in patients with a history of allergy to penicillin? Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Volume 54, Issue 6, 1 December 2004, Pages 1155–1157
4.Siles RI et al. Allergy blood testing: A practical guide for clinicians. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2011 September;78(9):585-592
5.Vidal C et al. Evaluation of the phadiatop test in the diagnosis of allergic sensitization in a general adult population. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2005;15(2):124-30
6.Tschopp JM et al. Current allergic asthma and rhinitis: diagnostic efficiency of three commonly used atopic markers (IgE, skin prick tests, and Phadiatop®). Allergy. 1998 Jun;53(6):608-13
7.Bauchau V et al. Prevalence and rate of diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in Europe. Eur Respir J. 2004 Nov;24(5):758-64
8.Shah NS et al. Documenting Penicillin Allergy: The Impact of Inconsistency. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3): e0150514
9.Albin S et al. Prevalence and Characteristics of Penicillin Allergy in Urban Adults. J allergy clin immunol volume 131, number 2


1.Wood E et al. Does this adult patient have early HIV infection?: The Rational Clinical Examination systematic review. JAMA. 2014 Jul 16;312(3):278-85


1.Ryan D et al. Management of the Patient with Suspected Temporal Arteritis. Ophthalmology 2005;112:744–756
2.Battista NA et al. Is it giant cell arteritis? A retrospective audit on temporal artery biopsy for giant cell arteritis. Malta Medical School Gazette Volume 01 Issue 02 2017
3.Diamantopoulos AP et al. Diagnostic Value of Color Doppler Ultrasonography of Temporal Arteries and Large Vessels in Giant Cell Arteritis: A Consecutive Case Series. Arthritis Care & Research Vol. 66, No. 1, January 2014, pp 113–119
4.Costello F et al. Thrombocytosis in giant cell arteritis: Diagnostic importance. Submitted for publication.
5.Yates M et al. The prevalence of giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica in a UK primary care population. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016; 17: 285